Section 498-A IPC: Law against Cruelty towards Women

23 Nov 2023  Read 4728 Views

In a society where marriages are highly valued, Section 498-A of IPC both harms & protects. It addresses the issue of domestic violence, dowry harassment & gender equality but also raises concerns about justice and societal expectations like the arrest of an accused without investigation on a mere complaint, fake FIRs & impact on family relationships. Nearly 31,000 complaints of crimes committed against women had been received by the National Commission for Women (NCW) in 2022, the highest since 2014. Shocking!

This shows why this topic needs so much attention. The idea behind this provision is to stop acts such as demanding money or property from women or ill-treating them that they might even think about hurting themselves.

So, let's delve into this article to discuss Section 498-A IPC in detail.

What is Section 498-A IPC?

Section 498-A of the IPC is a law which deals explicitly with cruelty against married women. In simpler words, it defines specific actions that, if done by a husband or his relatives, can be considered cruelty:

The law states that an accused under this section shall be punished if he:

  • Physically harms a woman or does things that hurt her body or mind.

  • Demands money, property, or valuable items from the woman or her family.

  • It makes the woman's life so difficult that she feels like hurting herself or even thinking about suicide.

Key Essentials on Section 498-A IPC

In cases of cruelty, the courtroom becomes a stage where justice is not only based on legal doctrines but also on the emotions and expectations of those involved. This raises questions about whether the law can genuinely address complex issues in relationships or if it becomes a tool for those who can manipulate it.

  • Introduced in 1983 under the Criminal Law Second Amendment Act, it aims to combat domestic violence and harassment faced by married women in India.

  • Section 498-A addresses the criminal offence of "cruelty by husband or relatives" toward a married woman.

  • The provision applies exclusively to married women.

  • Cruelty under this section must be linked to a demand for dowry. In India, dowry is a societal ill where the bride's family is expected to provide significant gifts or wealth to the groom's family upon marriage. Section 498A acknowledges that crimes related to dowry are frequently accompanied by cruelty and works towards preventing this type of mistreatment.

  • That woman must have experienced either brutality or harassment. The term "cruelty" can refer to a wide variety of behaviours which means it is comprehensive, covering various forms of abuse against a married woman.

Bail under Section 498-A IPC

  • Section 498-A is a non-compoundable and cognizable offence.

  • The Magistrate can grant bail only after the police register an FIR based on the aggrieved party's complaint.

  • The Supreme Court advises using Section 498-A sparingly, stressing its application in cases with genuine evidence of cruelty.

  • The court warns against using the section to settle personal issues.

Who can be prosecuted for cruelty?

Under this act, the court can prosecute:-

  1. Husband.

  2. His relatives and distant relatives.

In the case of  U. Suvetha Vs. State (2009), the Supreme Court held that only a person related by blood can be prosecuted under section 498A. The girlfriend or concubine of a husband cannot be charged. 

Punishment for Sec. 498-A IPC

If someone mistreats a woman after marriage, they can be punished with up to 3 years in jail and a fine. The term "cruelty" is broad—it includes hurting her physically or mentally and harassing her to force her or her family to meet unfair demands, like giving property or valuables. This also covers harassment related to dowry. If the mistreatment becomes so bad that it makes the woman think about hurting herself or committing suicide, it's also considered as "cruelty."

Laws curbing Violence against Women

Other Indian laws to help curb the instances of violence against women are,

  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (PWDVA).

  • Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.

  • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal) Act, 2013.

  • Indian Penal Code (IPC): Various IPC provisions have been made to address violence against women, including:

    • Section 376: Dealing with punishment for rape, with stricter provisions for different types of rape offences.

    • Section 354: Addressing criminal assault or use of criminal force against women with intent to outrage her modesty.

    • Section 354A: Dealing with sexual harassment and punishment for the same.

    • Section 354D: Criminalizing stalking and providing punishment for the offence.

    • Section 509: Dealing with words, gestures, or acts intended to insult the modesty of a woman.

  • Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013: This act was passed in response to the Nirbhaya case and significantly changed laws dealing with sexual offences. It included provisions for stricter punishments for rape, gang rape, and acid attacks, among others.

  • Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018: This act was passed after the Kathua Rape Case amending specific prime provisions like Section 376 of IPC. For example, Section 376 AB was added, etc.

Recent Important Case on Cruelty

To better understand the implications of Section 498A, let us consider an important case of 2023:

The case of Paranagouda v. State of Karnataka (2023)

Facts: In a heart-wrenching courtroom tragedy, the Supreme Court pronounced the accused guilty in a case where a young woman tragically took her own life. The learned Trial Judge found the accused guilty based on a dying declaration, giving them 7 years for Section 304B, 5 years for the Dowry Prohibition Act, and 1 year each for Section 498A and Section 4 of the Dowry Prohibition Act. They were fined Rs. 31,000 for Section 3 of the Dowry Prohibition Act. All sentences run together.


  • The Supreme Court clarified that the omission to frame a specific charge does not prevent the court from convicting the accused for a proven offence based on the evidence on record.

  • Emphasizing the flexibility of the legal system, the court pointed out that the Code of Criminal Procedure has adequate provisions to address situations where charges might not have been explicitly framed.

  • The SC highlighted that, in this specific case, all the necessary facts and ingredients for framing charges under Section 306 existed. The charge under Section 304B clearly stated that the accused subjected the deceased to cruelty, leading to her self-immolation and suicide.

  • The SC asserted that the omission by the trial judge to mention Section 306 IPC alongside Section 498A was not fatal to the case. It concluded that such omission did not cause any injustice to the accused, given the explicit mention of cruelty leading to suicide in the charge framed under Section 304B.

How do you file a complaint for cruelty?

If someone experiences any type of domestic violence, they have the option to file a complaint at the nearby police station, Special Police Unit for Women and Children (SPUWAC), or Women Cell (CAW). Another avenue is to contact the Women's Helpline at "1091" to register a complaint. For more information on civil remedies available under the Domestic Violence Act, individuals can refer to District-wise modules provided by the concerned authorities.


In conclusion, Section 498A of the IPC is pivotal in combating cruelty against married women, yet a balanced application is crucial to prevent misuse. Striking this balance requires ongoing discussions, awareness campaigns, and legal refinements to ensure justice, gender equality, and a society free from fear and abuse. 

Out of 30,957 cases reported to the NCW in 2022, 9,710 were related to the right to live with dignity, 6,970 involved domestic violence, and 4,600 were instances of dowry harassment. These statistics are alarming and emphasize the necessity of Section 498A in safeguarding the rights and welfare of married women.

How can we make people more aware and change their attitudes to stop emotional abuse and violence against women, as shown in the recent NCW data?

Comment your views below!

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About the Author: Kakoli Nath | 275 Post(s)

Kakoli Nath is a legal Content Manager at Finology Legal who pursued BBA.LL.B (5 years integrated course). She is a patent analyst & had also done advanced certification in Forensics Psychology and Criminal Profiling from IFS, Pune.

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