Formation of States & UTs in India

1 Nov 2023  Read 4462 Views

The transition of India from a colonial-era picture, comprising British-controlled provinces and princely states under local monarchs, to the integrated nation we see today was a monumental task undertaken between 1947 and 1950. The political map of India in 1947 was quite different as compared to the present one.

India had 565 princely states, each with its own situation. The Indian government had to talk, convince, and sometimes deal with opposition to make them part of the newly established Indian Union. This period also saw the emergence of linguistic states, further shaping India's political map.

Now, let's delve into the formation of states in detail along with the formation dates of each states and Union Territories.

How are states formed in India?

States in India are formed and reorganized through a constitutional process. The procedure for the formation of states in India is enshrined in Articles 3 and 4 of the Indian Constitution. The procedure is as follows:

  1. Proposal: Typically, the process begins with a formal proposal by the President of India on the advice of the Council of Ministers, or it can also be initiated by a resolution in either house of Parliament. The proposal can suggest the creation of a new state, alteration of boundaries, or renaming of an existing state.

  2. Parliamentary Approval: The proposal is then placed before Parliament for discussion and voting. It must be approved by a simple majority in both the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States).

  3. Public Opinion: In some cases, especially when boundaries are being altered, the President may also refer the proposal to the concerned State Legislature for their views. However, the State Legislature's opinion is not binding on the Parliament.

  4. Presidential Assent: After receiving the approval of both houses of Parliament, the President gives their assent to the proposal. Once the President assents, the proposal becomes law, and the changes are implemented.

  5. Implementation: The new state comes into existence, boundaries are altered, or the state is renamed as per the approved proposal.

List of Formation Dates of States in India

Indian States Formation Dates/Years Formed By Status Before Foundation
Andhra Pradesh 1 November 1953 States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Part of Andhra State and Hyderabad State
Arunachal Pradesh 20 February 1987 Created as a Union Territory by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. Converted to a state by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986 Arunachal Pradesh Union Territory
Assam 1950 Founded as Ahom Kingdom, reorganised as North-East Frontier Province in 1874, Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905, Assam Province in 1912, achieved statehood in 1950. Part of Kamarupa Kingdom
Bihar 1950 Founded as Bihar and Orissa Province, reorganised as Bihar Province in 1936, achieved statehood in 1950. Part of Bengal Province, British India
Chhattisgarh 1 November 2000 The Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 founded it. Part of Madhya Pradesh
Goa 30 May 1987 Founded by the State of Goa Act, 1986. Part of Goa, Daman and Diu
Gujarat 1 May 1960 Founded by the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960. Part of Bombay State
Haryana 1 November 1966 Founded by the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. Part of East Punjab
Himachal Pradesh 1971 Founded by the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 as Himachal Pradesh Province, reorganised as Himachal Pradesh (Part C State) in 1950, Himachal Pradesh Union Territory in 1956, achieved statehood in 1971. Part of the princely states of former Punjab States Agency
Jharkhand 15 November 2000 Founded by the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 Part of Bihar
Karnataka 1 November 1956 Founded by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 as Mysore State, renamed Karnataka in 1973

Part of Bombay State, Coorg State, Hyderabad State and Mysore State

Kerala 1 November 1956 Founded by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 Part of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin
Madhya Pradesh 1 November 1950 Achieved statehood in 1950 Part of the Central Provinces and Berar, Princely State of Makrai and the princely states of the former Eastern States Agency
Maharashtra 1 May 1960 Founded by the Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960. Part of Bombay State
Manipur 21 January 1972 Founded by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 Manipur Union Territory
Meghalaya 21 January 1972 Founded by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 Part of Assam
Mizoram 20 February 1987 Created as a Union Territory by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. Converted to a state by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986 Mizoram Union Territory
Nagaland 1 December 1963 Founded by the State of Nagaland Act, 1962 Nagaland Union Territory
Odisha 1950 Founded as Orissa Province in 1936, achieved statehood in 1950, renamed Odisha on 1st November, 2011. Part of Bihar and Orissa Province, British India
Punjab 1947 Founded by the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 Part of East Punjab
Rajasthan 30 March 1949 Rajasthan, earlier known as Rajputana, came into existence Part of the princely states of former Rajputana Agency
Sikkim 16 May 1975 Founded by the Thirty-sixth Amendment of the Constitution of India in 1975 Kingdom of Sikkim
Tamil Nadu 1 November 1956 Founded by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 as Madras State, renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969 Part of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin
Telangana 2 June 2014 Founded by the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 Part of Andhra Pradesh
Tripura 21 January 1972 Founded by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 Tripura Union Territory
Uttar Pradesh 24 January 1950 Created as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule in 1937 and Achieved statehood as UP in 1950. United Provinces
Uttarakhand 9 November 2000 Founded by the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 as Uttaranchal, renamed Uttarakhand in 2007. Part of Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal 1950 Achieved statehood in 1950 Part of Bengal Province, British India

 

List of Formation Dates of Union Territories of India

Name of the UT

Formation Date

Formed By

Status Before Formation

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1 November 1956

Founded by the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Part D state)

Chandigarh

1 November 1956

Founded by the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.

Part of East Punjab

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu

26 January 2020

Founded by the Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Merger of Union Territories) Act, 2019.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (separate)

Delhi

1 November 1956

Founded by the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.

Delhi (Part C) state

Jammu & Kashmir

31 October 2019

Founded by the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act of 2019.

Part of the Jammu and Kashmir state

Ladakh

31 October 2019

Founded by the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act of 2019.

Part of the Jammu and Kashmir state

Lakshadweep

1 November 1956

Founded by the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.

Part of Madras state

Puducherry

1963

1956 Cession treaty (French Parliament). Renamed Puducherry in 2007. 

French India

 

Classification of states in 1950 under the Indian Constitution

Classification of states in 1950 under the Indian Constitution, which is now repealed. The distinction between Part A, B, C, and D States are now classified into 2 units:

a) States

b) Union territories.

The posts of Rajpramukhs were demolished. The State Reorganization Act of 1956 formed 14 states and 6 union territories at that time.

  • Part A- (Arts. 152- 237)- This part comprised states surrendered to India by the Britishers. (Repealed)

  • Part B- (Art. 238)- This part comprised the states who were reluctant to join India, like Hyderabad, J & K etc. (Repealed)

  • Part C- (Arts. 239- 242)- This part included small states that Britishers used as Union Territories (Chief Commissioner states), such as Manipur. (Repealed)

  • Part D- (Arts. 243)- Included Andaman & Nicobar. (Repealed)

Conclusion

In summary, the state formation process in India post-independence was a complex and pivotal chapter in the country's history. It involved the integration of numerous princely states, often through negotiation and sometimes with resistance. This process laid the groundwork for the diverse and linguistically organized Indian states we have today, showcasing India's ability to unite and prosper in the face of substantial challenges.

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About the Author: Kakoli Nath | 275 Post(s)

She is a Legal Content Manager at Finology Legal! With a Masters in Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), a BBA.LL.B from ITM University, and patent analyst training from IIPTA, she truly specializes in her field. Her passion for IPR and Criminal laws is evident from her advanced certification in Forensic Psychology and Criminal Profiling from IFS, Pune.

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