In 1414, Khizr Khan, a former Multan governor, established the Sayyid Dynasty. The Tughlaq Dynasty was replaced by this one, which lasted for 37 years, from 1414 until 1451. The Lodi Dynasty succeeded it as the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
The Sayyid Dynasty's kings proclaimed their succession to the throne on the grounds that they had a divine right to do so. They asserted that they were descended directly from the Quraish Tribe, which included the Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam. The dynasty is known as the Sayyid Dynasty because Khizr Khan was a Sayyid. Timur, the Turkish conqueror, was aided by Khizr Khan, who was also made governor of Multan and Lahore. He served Timur and his kid for many years. He seized control of Delhi on May 28th, 1414, and founded the Sayyid Dynasty.
Kings of Sayyid Dynasty
Khizr Khan (1414- 1421)
- The Sayyid dynasty was established by Sayyid Khizr Khan, who ruled northern India from 1414 to 1421, shortly after Timur's invasion and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty.
- When he ascended the throne, Delhi was in a dreadful situation.
- Anarchy, confusion, and chaos dominated the entire realm.
- Hindu doab lords had also renounced submission to the Sultan and declared their independence.
- By putting down revolts, he created law and order in the empire.
- Khizr Khan saw some success and enlarged the limits of his domain.
- Gujarat, Bayana, and Gwalior were all taken by Khizr Khan's army.
- After that, Sirhind's ruler agreed to pay an annual tribute to Khizr Khan as his army advanced on Sirhind.
- In the meantime, he got sick, and despite trying his best to save him, he died on 20th May 1421
- Mubarak Khan, his son, succeeded him after his death
Mubarak Shah (1421-1434)
Following Khizr Khan's reign, Mubarak Shah, his son, ascended to the throne. In power from 1421 to 1434, Mubarak Shah. He dealt with the emergence of numerous local dynasties, endured considerable social turmoil, and frequently faced threats from the aristocrats. The aristocrats disliked him because he took money from them. On the banks of the Yamuna River, Mubarak Shah established the city of Mubarakabad under his rule. In 1434 CE, Mubarak Shah was killed.
Muhammad Shah (1434-1445)
Muhammad Shah, Mubarak Shah's nephew, became the monarch following Mubarak Shah's murder. From 1434 to 1445, he was in power. During his rule, rebellions and civil instability persisted, and the empire's affairs became more perplexing. Muhammad Shah of the Sayyid Dynasty was despised for being a weak and careless administrator. Several kings, notably the sultan of Malwa, assaulted him in an effort to seize control of the Sultanate. Muhammad Shah could stop the king of Malwa with the aid of Bahlol Lodi, who stepped forward to provide assistance.
Ala-ud-din Alam Shah (1445-1451)
After Muhammad Shah passed away, Alam Shah took over. Alam Shah, the final ruler of the Mughal dynasty, was a total failure. He loved living in opulence and taking advantage of all the benefits that came with being a king. Because of his fear of Bahlol Lodi, he eventually gave the Sultanate to Lodi, who then established the Lodi Dynasty.
The economy of the Sayyid Dynasty
- Trade and the economy did not flourish under the Sayyids' rule.
- Sayyids imposed corn taxes, which Lodhi eventually eliminated.
- Supply lines in the Deccan region, which served as a marine trade route, broke down in the 14th and 15th centuries CE due to a drop in trading routes.
- The empire's access to supplies from the coast wadue to result of the collapse.
- By the time of Lodhi, the governmental system had already begun to fall apart during the Sayyid era.
- The weak economy ultimately caused the Sultanate to disintegrate.
The end of the Sayyid Dynasty
The Delhi Sultanate significantly influenced India's culture. Each dynasty left its own mark on the area it ruled. Even though the Sayyid Dynasty's emperors tended to be pro-peace, they spent much time silencing rebellions. The Delhi Sultanate's final reigning dynasty, the Lodi Dynasty, succeeded the Sayyid Dynasty. Ala-Ud-Din Alam Shah is said to have gone to Budaun, where he passed away, and voluntarily given the kingdom to Bahlol Lodi.
Four different kings ruled the Sayyid Dynasty for 37 years. It was one of the weakest dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate. The Lodi Dynasty succeeded it. No blood was split for the succession of the throne. Khizr Khan also didn’t name himself the Sultan but only reigned under the name of governor.